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The General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade (Gatt) Was Responsible For

One of GATT`s most important achievements has been indiscriminate trade. Any GATT signatory should be treated like any other, known to be the nation`s most privileged principle and entered into the WTO. The practical result was that, once a country had negotiated a tariff reduction with some other countries (usually its major trading partners), this reduction would automatically apply to all GATT signatories. There were leakage clauses allowing countries to negotiate exemptions if their domestic producers were particularly harmed by tariff reductions. The Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) ended in 1994, after 7.5 years of negotiations, with the signing of the final deed on 15 April 1994 in Marrakech, Morocco. This issue, known as the “GATT of 1994,” led to the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 1 January 1995. Among the agreements included in the WTO Treaty is the Agreement on the Application of Health and Plant Health Measures (SPS Agreement), which sets out the basic rules for the protection of human, animal and plant health during international trade (WTO, 1995). However, this part of the result was not authorized by Congress and the U.S. selling price was not abolished until Congress passed the results of the Tokyo Round. The results in agriculture as a whole have been poor.

The most notable achievement was the agreement on a Memorandum of Understanding on the basic elements for the arrangement of global subsidies, which was eventually incorporated into a new international agreement on cereals. Reducing tariffs and introducing new rules to stem the increase in non-tariff barriers and voluntary export restrictions. 102 countries participated in the cycle. Concessions have been made for $19 billion. The GATT was created to create rules to end or limit the most costly and undesirable features of the pre-war period, namely quantitative barriers to trade such as trade controls and quotas. The agreement also provided for a system for resolving trade disputes between nations and the framework allowed for a series of multilateral negotiations on the removal of customs barriers. The GATT was considered a major success in the post-war years. In addition, countries could restrict trade for national security reasons.

These include patent protection, copyright and public morality. Most countries have adopted the GATT tariff-fixing decisions that have largely replaced quotas. Tariffs (preferably quotas, but still an obstacle to trade) have in turn been constantly reduced in successive rounds of negotiations. THE GATT continues to live as the foundation of the WTO. The 1947 agreement itself no longer exists, but its provisions were incorporated into the 1994 GATT agreement. Trade agreements should thus continue to operate during the wto`s implementation. That is why the 1994 GATT is an integral part of the WTO agreement. Derogations under Article XX of the GATT are permitted as long as the resulting measures are not unjustified or arbitrary. This implies that the country has no other means of pursuing objectives that would avoid restrictive trade practices. In this context, the general principles of international law and other international conventions ratified by members may also be taken into account when interpreting the extension of a waiver (US – Shrimp, WTAB/R, 1998, para.

35). See also the Vienna Convention on Treaty Law Article 31.3.c). The Kennedy Round took place from 1962 to 1967. $40 billion in tariffs have been eliminated or reduced. Unlike the ITO charter, the GATT did not need congressional approval.

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